Black mushrooms are not a special variety, but the same mushrooms that have changed color against the background of various reactions that occur when spores interact with various substances oxygen, etc. The hue changes in fresh, dry, and even canned products. The question arises: what to do with mushroom turned black inside and what are causes?
Why do mushroom turned black?
It is quite possible to independently determine the cause of the darkening of naturally white mushrooms. They do this according to the main features: the place of localization of blackness, the presence/absence of other manifestations. The situation accompanying the color change (cooking, frying, defrosting) is also important.
mushroom turned black under hat
If the area under the cap darkens in mushroom, you should not worry. This is a sign of the full ripeness of the product.
But not in all cases. If blackness has spread throughout the entire spore-bearing layer, leaving no light blotches, the fungus is poisoned. To a greater extent, the statement concerns forest mushrooms.
Mushrooms plucked in an unripe form darken over time (if they lie on store shelves and in their own refrigerator for a long time).
mushroom turned black inside
The reason for the darkening of the fungus from the inside is the oxidation of the product against the background of contact with air (oxygen). The product can be eaten only if the following signs are present (you need to cut mushroom with knife):
- body elasticity;
- there are many white areas among the black mass.
If, on the cut, the fruiting body is completely black, toxic substances are already accumulating in it. It cannot be eaten.
Additional manifestations of inedibility:
- bad smell;
- high humidity.
mushroom turned black when hot
Fruiting bodies contain carbon. When interacting with high temperatures, it “makes” the product darken, which is considered a normal and even correct reaction. The main thing is that they remain white until frying.
mushroom turned black after defrosting
For long-term storage, housewives use the freezing method – mushrooms do not lose their taste and useful properties. But sometimes it turns out that after defrosting the champignon suddenly turned black.
This occurs when products are placed in plastic containers or plastic bags without sealing. It is vacuum packaging that does not allow physiological disturbances in spores, since it lacks oxygen.
Eating blackened thawed mushrooms is not contraindicated if the following signs are not present in addition:
- mushrooms secrete sticky mucus;
- a smell unusual for mushroom appeared;
- the spore-bearing lamellar layer is strongly darkened;
- noticeable signs of decay;
- the hat was covered with large black spots.
Is it possible to eat mushroom turned black?
Since the change in color of champignons during storage is considered a natural process, then it is allowed to eat such products. But here it is important to take into account the various factors that led to blackening.
Rules for different situations:
- Black plates. Analyze the degree of darkening of the lamellar layer. If it is completely black, with the presence of mucus, there are risks of poisoning.
A slight change in color (only if the caps are fully opened) allows you to eat mushrooms. Be sure to boil them for 40-45 minutes, then fry them.
- Dark flesh and skin. If the plate has turned black along with the pulp and peel, evaluate the level of blackness visually. If it is insignificant, then carefully examine the place of the fracture of the cut – smell it, touch it with your fingers.
There should be no foreign odors, strong sputum and mucus. You can eat such mushrooms, but with mandatory heat treatment.
- Raw darkened mushrooms. It is believed that raw champignons are the most useful. They contain a large amount of fiber.
However, blackened specimens are not recommended to be eaten raw, since pathological processes are already running in the mushrooms against the background of the development of pathogens. After boiling or frying, the bacteria are destroyed, and the product is no longer dangerous.
Cook slightly blackened champignons for at least 10–15 minutes, optimally 40–50. The heat treatment time depends on the degree of browning.
If, nevertheless, poisoning occurs, it is urgent to provide first aid:
- rinse the stomach – drink 1.5-2 liters of clean water (preferably boiled), press on the root of the tongue with your finger, which will cause a gag reflex (repeat up to 3 times);
- drink a sorbent – activated carbon (for every 10 kg of body weight – 1 tablet);
- after all the manipulations, drink in small sips 200-300 ml of weakly brewed black tea, dried fruit compote, rosehip decoction (without sugar).
Such procedures are carried out in the presence of the following symptoms:
- nausea and pain in the head;
- severe weakness and cold sweat;
- diarrhea and pain in the gastrointestinal tract;
- respiratory failure.
If there are changes in blood pressure, hallucinations or strabismus, then the degree of intoxication is considered strong. Call an ambulance immediately.The gag reflex must not be induced during pregnancy. In children under the age of 3 years, it is generally not recommended to feed any mushrooms.
How to Prevent Mushrooms From Turning black or brown?
The main requirement for the preservation of champignons: collected or purchased fresh mushrooms should not be washed. The lamellar spore-bearing layer has a loose structure. It instantly absorbs water, and distributes moisture throughout the body of the product.
processing method and condition for mushroom
The shelf life of mushrooms depends on the processing method and condition:
- fresh at room temperature – from 12 to 18 hours;
- in the refrigerator (on the shelf for vegetables) – from 3 to 6 days;
- in the freezer raw – 6-9 months;
- frozen boiled – up to 6 months;
- dry – from 12 to 18 months;
- canned at home – a maximum of 6 months;
- pickled factory – up to 12 months (due to the content of preservatives).
conditions and methods of storing mushrooms
There are rules on the conditions and methods of storing mushrooms:
- do not buy a product if it has lain on the counter for more than 72 hours;
- keep in a tightly closed container or vacuum bag to ensure minimal oxygen access (additionally, manipulation does not allow the mushrooms to dry out);
- the optimum temperature in the refrigerator is + 5–7 ° С, but it is better from 0 to + 2 ° С;
- Change the packaging once every 2–3 days (when kept in a cold place, condensation forms in the bag), let the mushrooms dry a little beforehand;
- champignons stored without containers dry out quickly;
- it is permissible to keep fresh, boiled, fried champignons in the freezer (fresh ones are not washed, but only cleaned of dirt, fried ones are placed on a paper towel to get rid of fat);
- control the temperature in the freezer – it should not be higher than -18 ° C.
An excellent storage option is dried mushrooms. There are two ways to dry mushrooms:
- Cut mushrooms into thin plates / cubes, place on a baking sheet, keep in the oven at a temperature of + 45–50 ° until the moisture has completely evaporated.
- String sliced or whole mushrooms on a string, hang in the open sun. Take it indoors at night. When the mushrooms begin to break well, they are ready.
It is convenient to grind dry semi-finished products and store them in powder form (for sauces, soups).
how to keep mushrooms fresh longer?
In some cases, when a person consumes raw mushrooms (as a source of nutrients, in dietary nutrition), there is a need to extend their freshness. There are several options:
- Make a saline solution in a saucepan (for 1 liter of water – 2–3 tablespoons of salt), place the mushrooms in a container, boil for 2–3 minutes after boiling (the nutrients do not have time to evaporate), squeeze out the water and freeze.
- If stored in the refrigerator, place dry (not washed) mushrooms in a plastic container, cover with a natural cloth towel.
- Place the product in portions in canvas bags, fold the blanks into a container with a closed lid.
Before carrying out manipulations to extend freshness, you need to properly prepare mushrooms for storage:
- cut off the edge of the leg with a sharp knife (try not to have torn pieces);
- sweep away dirt (remains of soil) with a soft brush;
- if there are breaks or damaged areas, remove them;
- wipe with a dry soft cloth on all sides – do it carefully so as not to damage the body.
But, even if all the conditions and requirements are met, it is unacceptable to keep mushrooms in the refrigerator for more than 7 days. After the expiration of the period, toxic substances begin to be produced in them.
how to pick fresh mushrooms?
Ideally fresh Mushroom has a presentable appearance: smooth, without damage and breaks. Other signs of a really high-quality mushroom picking is:
- hat shade – matte;
- body color – white or white-pink;
- the surface is slightly velvety or smooth (depending on the mushroom variety);
- the integrity of the film on the hat and between it and the stem;
- darkening of the cut of the leg, but not blackening;
- mushroom aroma;
- when pressed, there is a feeling of elasticity and firmness.
But, if during transportation the external indicators were slightly violated, this does not mean that mushrooms should not be eaten.
signs of rotten mushrooms: how to tell if mushrooms are bad
If it is easy to determine freshness/spoilage with fresh mushrooms, then it is more difficult to do this with other storage methods. It is important to study all the features of a bad product.
Do canned mushrooms go bad?
Pickled mushrooms are stored for a long time, but if the preservation technology is violated, pathogenic microorganisms penetrate inside, contributing to the rapid deterioration of the product. How to identify spoiled canned mushrooms? Main signs:
- there is turbidity in the marinade;
- the fermentation process, manifested by the formation of bubbles at the bottom (rising up);
- lid pops up.
Do not eat mushrooms that have expired (even if there are no signs yet).
do dried mushrooms go bad
Dried mushrooms also need to be properly stored: exclude high humidity, isolate from other products, insects. Failure to comply will result in damage. It appears like this:
- mold cover;
- the smell of rot;
- the presence of fly larvae;
- transformation of the mushroom body into a rotten state.
do frozen mushrooms go bad
The main rule for storing a frozen product is to prevent defrosting and re-freezing. It is almost impossible to determine the depravity of frozen mushrooms by appearance.
However, when buying in a store, you can still check the product for suitability for use. Feel the package. If there are lumps of ice in it, the mushroom were re-frozen or the rules for preparing the semi-finished product were violated in production.If, after defrosting, there are black spots on the mushrooms, an unpleasant odor and strength is lost, they are spoiled.
Not all black mushrooms can be eaten. It is only important to learn how to distinguish mushrooms that simply darkened for natural reasons from a spoiled product. But, even if there is complete confidence in the fit state of mushroom, it is not recommended to eat them without prior thermal treatment.