Mushrooms can be eaten not only fresh but also dried. This method is most attractive since it allows you to preserve your find for a long time, use it as a seasoning, addition to dishes, and also as an ingredient for making medicines according to folk recipes.
However, the find will lose all its useful and taste properties, and in general, it will deteriorate if drying was carried out incorrectly. And this is possible if you do not know the technology of working with this or that device, as well as some of the nuances of such a question.
Every experienced mushroom picker probably has a couple of ideas on how to properly dry mushrooms so that they delight with their taste, aroma, and useful properties for a long time. In this article, we will look at how to properly dry mushrooms, how long this procedure will take, what devices will be needed for this, and also highlight other related issues.
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Mushroom drying rules
It is believed that drying is a simple, safe, affordable way for harvesting and further storage of forest dwellers. Dried mushrooms are stored for a long time and can easily lie on your shelf in a special container.
Another significant advantage is the fact that in terms of the amount of nutrients and useful vitamins, these mushrooms surpass even their pickled and salted counterparts.
As for the amount of protein content in dried mushrooms, there are much more of them than in canned ones.
And drying allows not only to preserve the mushroom shape, but also all their advantages. Among them are light aroma, pleasant taste and, of course, the required amount of vitamins and minerals. However, not all mushrooms can be dried. Some really tolerate this procedure well and are excellent in use after a month or two. Others, on the contrary, lose all their useful properties, including food, can become harmful and tasteless.
What mushrooms are recommended to dry?
For convenience, we will divide the mushrooms into classifications according to their structure.
This is a vast group of forest dwellers, which include many of the mushrooms we know that grow. Among them, the following items are suitable for drying:
- polish mushroom ,
- birch trees,
- White mushrooms,
These are morels and white truffles.
- summer honey fungus,
- mushroom umbrella,
- deer mushroom,
Tinder fungus, motley, branched.
This is not a complete list, but it covers all known mushrooms moslty used. If you managed to collect other names in your basket, be sure to write to us about this in the comments below, we will be happy to help with advice.
The benefits and harms of dried mushrooms
Before moving on to drying, you need to find out what the benefits of this procedure are and whether there can be harm.
Let’s start by looking at all the advantages and benefits factors.
- Dried mushrooms contain a huge amount of beneficial vitamins, minerals and substances. Some of them may even fight cancer.
- Dried mushrooms can be absorbed by the human body by 80%.
- They have a positive effect on the secretion of gastric acid secretion.
- Recommended for use even on a diet.
- Restores the beauty of hair, skin and nails.
- Have a positive effect on the health of people suffering from angina pectoris.
- It has a beneficial effect on the liver, eyes and bone marrow.
- Recommended for atherosclerosis.
- Allows you to restore the affected cells in the body.
- They break down fats, thus contributing to a slimming effect.
But despite such clear advantages, there are disadvantages that you should also be warned about.
- Dried mushrooms are not advisable to give to children under the age of 12 years. This applies not only to the possibility of poisoning, but in principle, the child’s body is still unable to digest such complex food.
- Some mushrooms contain substances that are not typical for people with individual intolerance. Be sure to check this in advance.
- Of course, such mushrooms should not be consumed if you have liver, kidney disease or have any nuances of the digestive system.
Calorie content of dried mushrooms
Naturally, the calorie content of mushrooms depends directly on the type that you have collected. However, nutritionists recommend eating any dried mushrooms, since, in principle, their caloric value does not differ much, especially in dried form.
Important! So, for example, per 100 g of product, mushrooms contain an average of 30 g of proteins, 15 g of fat, and 10 g of carbohydrates.
Agree, this is not so much, and given that you can cook a huge number of dishes with such ingredients, you can be sure that you will not add extra pounds, and, for sure, get rid of a couple of three.
If the mushrooms are dried and ground, then one tablespoon will contain about 25 g. But in a glass about 160 g in the form of spices.
How to store dried mushrooms
This issue needs to be given special attention. The fact is that improper storage of mushrooms can cause the formation of mold, spoilage, breeding of insects, and so on. In order to protect your work from such a development of events, you must use the general rules that allow you to keep food for a long time in the desired form.
- Storage should be carried out in a dry place, in a box and in a dry place. It is advisable to frequently ventilate the room. It is ideal if there are no foreign smells nearby, since mushrooms that are stored in an unopened jar can absorb not the most pleasant aromas.
- If you grind morels or porcini mushrooms, then storage should be carried out in a closed box or box. Other types may well be placed in plastic bags.
- If you purchase special clean containers in the form of jars for storage, then mushrooms in this state can lie from several months to several years.
- Ideal conditions are considered to be a temperature that does not exceed 60 degrees Celsius, and the air humidity has not moved abroad 75%.
Naturally, in the matter of drying mushrooms, there are established rules that should be strictly observed.
The fact is that not all mushrooms can be dried. Some species are not suitable for this, they have a bitter taste and not the most pleasant aroma. Therefore, initially check the possibility of drying certain types of mushrooms on the Internet yourself.
It is believed that marsupials or tubular mushrooms are the most ideal. Among them are boletus, flywheel, butter dish, chanterelle and honey fungus.
After you have decided on the types that are possible for drying, you need to sort. This is done in order to rid the mushrooms of debris, and also remove old, rotten, damaged mushrooms. It is not recommended to eat them.
Cleansing from grass, dirt and leaves is mandatory; it is better to do this with a special brush.
Important! It is not recommended to wash the mushrooms before you dry them. However, wiping with a damp cloth to remove dust and dirt is recommended.
You need to cut the mushrooms into small slices, the thickness of which does not exceed half a centimeter.
Among the abundance of drying options, it is better to give preference to sunlight. However, this method can only be used on a hot summer sunny day. If you do not have this opportunity, then of course you can take advantage of other options.
Choose the right temperature regime, otherwise you may not dry out the mushrooms, which will completely provoke putrefactive processes or poisoning. And if you set the temperature too high, then in this case you run the risk of frying the mushrooms to the point where they cannot be eaten.
4 ways to Dry Mushrooms at Home
Today, there are many possible variations in drying the catch you collect in baskets. Of course, each method has a number of nuances that are important to observe.
Drying Mushroom in the sun
This is the cheapest, fastest, and most importantly reliable way to give mushrooms the desired fragility. However, you can use this method only if it is summer, heat, and the bright sun is shining on the street. In the cold season or in case of cloudy weather, it is impossible to dry the mushrooms in this way. Unfortunately, they will lose their original appearance, their beneficial properties and qualities, and most importantly, in the future they may even become harmful to human health.
Therefore, this method is recommended only for the period from June to August September.
All mushrooms can be dried in the sun. And if you have a large loggia, a balcony, and large windows, you can dry immediately much more mushrooms by weight than in an oven, special drying, and so on.
- To do this, you need to purchase special drying trays. However, the most common home diarrhea may also work, although it is recommended to cover it with a napkin or baking paper.
- The next step is to cut the mushrooms. This is usually done in slices, but if necessary, you can trim the mushrooms into several pieces, depending on how you want to store them.
- The mushrooms are carefully laid out so that they do not cover each other, thereby not creating a shadow. Otherwise, if the mushrooms overlap each other, they will no longer be able to dry well, which means they may rot.
- Spread the mushrooms and spread them gently.
- It is not necessary to open the windows, it is enough that the sunlight will directly fall on your trays.
- Wait a while. Usually, in order for the mushrooms to be well dried, it will take from several hours to several days, depending on the intensity of the sun and its location. But ideally, if the mushrooms are in the sunlight all daylight hours.
- However, it is not recommended to overexpose mushrooms for more than 2 days in the sun.
Make sure that the place you choose is well protected from rain, dust, and all kinds of moisture. And also, so that the wind blows well, so that the air around does not stagnate.
The mushrooms are carefully cut into slices, so they dry well.
In order to check that the mushrooms were heard correctly, you need to take one plate in your hand and try to bend it. If it really changes shape, then this means that you did everything absolutely right.
However, some mushrooms that have a fairly mucous membrane or firm flesh are difficult to listen to. For example porcini mushrooms. They need to be dried in this way very intensively, for several hours, sometimes days in a row. And still, possible rotting cannot be avoided if it turns out that the flesh inside has not been dried out.
Dry Mushroom Oven
Drying in the oven is also another popular, simple and relatively quick method.
To do this, the mushrooms must be laid out on baking paper. Naturally, they are preliminarily cut into several parts or cut in even plates. Make sure that the temperature in the oven is optimal, between 60 and 70 degrees Celsius.
It is important that air circulates constantly in the oven, so the doors are not closed tightly, leaving a small opening.
Periodically, the mushrooms need to be stirred, put in different directions so that each of them receives its own portion of heat.
If you want to dry several trays of mushrooms at once, then it is recommended to swap them, periodically rearranging them up and down. Now one, then another.
However, it is not recommended to dry more than two trays at the same time, otherwise the efficiency of the oven will be drastically reduced.
This drying method is the most optimal if you live in a city and do not have the opportunity to keep mushrooms in the sun for a long time. You can process mushrooms in this way in a few days if you have gained a few kilograms.
Also, you can place mushrooms not only on a tray, but also on a special wire rack, after covering it with baking paper.
Mushrooms are selected that are similar in size. If you place babies and large individuals, then in this case you run the risk that some of them will be very dry, or others will not be completely dry.
Make sure that the mushrooms do not stick to each other, while making it difficult to bake evenly.
If the mushrooms are too small, then you should not raise the temperature above 45 degrees Celsius. Unfortunately, if the temperature is higher, then protein substances will begin to be released from the mushroom in a large volume. This can significantly impair the drying process, the mushrooms will acquire an unpleasant and ugly dark color.
If you start crushing the mushrooms, you will notice that they break off, which means that the drying was carried out incorrectly.
After the mushrooms are dry, they will stop sticking to your hands, and you will know that they are ready. In this situation, the temperature can be raised to 80 degrees Celsius and maintained in this form for some time.
It is impossible to give precise recommendations on the temperature regime and interaction time. Everything is so individual that it is only necessary to comprehend this subtle science by experience.
Make sure that the mushrooms have the same size legs and caps, as well as approximately the same layers of pulp. But even if you did not pick up the same mushrooms, do not be discouraged, just remove the small ones from the oven in a timely manner, adding more.
Use Microwave to Dry Mushrooms
This method is not suitable as a conveyor one, since the microwave eats a large amount of electrical energy, and in order to dry a couple of kilograms of mushrooms, you will have to go broke. Most likely, this method is suitable if you need to dry a very small batch of mushrooms and in a very short time.
You can work in this way not with every microwave oven, but only with the one that has high revolutions.
Mushrooms for this drying method must be prepared in advance. They should be well peeled and cut into very thin slices. Then, they are neatly laid out on a special large plate, and then the power is set to about 180 watts. Set the time to 20 minutes and start the microwave. Open the door every 5 minutes and watch the condition of the mushrooms.
Repeat this several times until the entire 20 minutes are gone.
As a result, you get nice beautiful dried mushrooms that bend well and smell good.
This drying method is quite costly, both financially and temporarily. You will have to stand near the microwave for a long time, checking the condition of its contents. This is not very convenient and pleasant, so we strongly recommend that you choose other methods, and leave the microwave in case you need to do something urgently.
Dry morel mushrooms
Separate rules exist for drying morel mushrooms.
You need to act with them very carefully, otherwise, their fragile body can be quickly destroyed, and as a result, you will get nothing.
Morels of various categories belong to morel mushrooms. They have a rather fragile, almost mucous body.
Therefore, you need to work with them very carefully. In order to dry them, the mushrooms must first be strung on threads. Also, you can use special gauze bags. Instead of them, nylon stockings are ideal, which will hold mushrooms well, while allowing air to pass through.
Drying should be done in a well-ventilated area. This process is lengthy, about 6 months. During all this time, the oxygen that will circulate around can remove unnecessary toxins, thereby making the mushrooms useful for eating.
How to keep dried mushrooms for longer?
This question worries mushroom pickers and housewives the most, since if the storage method is chosen incorrectly, your efforts to dry them will be wasted.
In order to correctly implement the technology, you need to know some of the nuances. The fact is that dried mushrooms have lost almost all of their moisture, so they try to absorb it from everything around. This can be a container or ambient air. Therefore, it is easy to notice dampness or mold if you have not followed all the rules and regulations.
Also, mushrooms very easily absorb odors that are around. Therefore, when choosing a storage method, you need to make sure that the mushrooms are in very dry, yet well-ventilated areas. Ideally, if there are no sources of moisture nearby, the container will be safe and dry. And most importantly, it is sealed.
Metal or glass jars are best. Also, dried mushrooms can be easily stored in special bags made of gauze or linen. They can also be stored in a ventilated place, away from foods that have a very strong odor.
If for some reason, you find that the mushrooms have become wet, or have acquired a foreign smell, you are advised to carefully sort through them, then dry them well.
In order to preserve the mushrooms, they must be dried well and made sure they are no longer wet. Then, they are laid out in sealed jars and carefully closed.
Important! Banks must be sterilized for a long time at a temperature of 90 degrees. Ideally, take about 40 minutes to do this. Remember that it is recommended to immerse mushrooms only in dry jars.
Also, there is a problem. If there is too much air left in the jar after moving the mushrooms there, it is likely that undesirable processes may begin. There are several good ways to prevent this from happening. This is the suction of air from the cans. To do this, a small amount of alcohol must be poured onto the inner surface of the lid. They light it up and at the same moment they begin to spin the jar. When burning, alcohol will consume absolutely all the oxygen that is in the jar, which means that the mushrooms will not undergo mold, rotting and other processes. At the same time, they are perfectly preserved even if you did not dry them well enough.
However, even after you have removed the mushrooms from the jar, they still need to be rinsed well. Do not forget that dust, dirt and so on can remain on them.
It is ideal to soak dried mushrooms before adding them to any dish.
It is recommended to soak not only in water, but also in milk, as it is believed that it absorbs toxins best of all.
How to make mushroom powder?
Dried mushrooms are stored not only in slices or parts, most often they are made into a powder. The powder is ideal for making medicines or adding to food as a seasoning.
However, the powder can only be made from well-dried mushrooms.
- For cooking, you need to put well-dried mushrooms in a coffee grinder.
- Turn on the necessary mode and make sure that the mushrooms are ground into flour. In this crushing, not only the pulp is destroyed, but also the hardened skin of the mushrooms, which means that they perfectly reveal their taste and enhance the aroma. In addition, mushrooms in this form are much better absorbed by the human body.
The mushroom powder is fragrant and delicious, especially if it is made from porcini mushrooms.
In order for such a powder to become a spice, it is recommended to add salt, pepper, and a small amount of paprika to it.
Together they make a very tasty combination.
Also, salt can greatly increase the safety of such a powder. If necessary, you can add other spices, for example, dried celery, parsley, cumin, and so on.
Mushroom powder is stored very compactly, in a small jar, while it is very convenient to add it to food, both liquid and solid. However, in order for the powder not to waste its taste and aroma superiority, it must be added to food 5 minutes before the end of cooking.
It is believed that the shelf life of such a powder does not exceed one year, however, with the correct technology, storage can significantly increase.
For example, many housewives say that they use the powder for 5 years. However, we do not recommend that you take risks, as this is a very dangerous practice.
Alternative devices for drying mushrooms
We have considered those options for drying mushrooms that are the most popular and widespread. However, these are not all of those that can be applied in a modern kitchen.
For example, many housewives who often dry fruits and vegetables use a special dryer for mushrooms. It has several tiers, sets a certain temperature, and as a result, you get a good dried product. Such a device is quite expensive, but at the same time it is very effective and is a good helper in the kitchen.
Some people manage to dry mushrooms in an air fryer. The principle of operation of this apparatus is as follows. The mushrooms are put on a special lattice in a container, after which the effect of convection begins from above at a certain predetermined temperature. As a result of strong air circulation, the mushrooms are quickly blown, a crust forms on them, and then they dry quickly. It turns out very tasty, and most importantly, pleasant.
The electric grill is mainly used for roasting meat or vegetables. Also, mushrooms are baked in it. However, they can be dried by applying strong pressure and setting the required temperature. Mushrooms, under the influence of high temperatures, release moisture and dry quickly. True, it is recommended to store such mushrooms for no more than one month; at the first signs of decay, it is necessary to get rid of them. The fact is that in this way it is quite problematic to get rid of the moisture entirely.
Now that you know everything about the nuances of drying mushrooms, you can independently proceed to this procedure. The mushroom season is about to start, which means you are sure to get a good catch. If fresh mushrooms cannot be eaten completely, this does not mean that they need to be disposed of. Try dry mushrooms and you will see how varied, unique and delicious the dishes on your table can be. We wish you pleasant experiments, and most importantly, choose for yourself exactly the method that turns out to be the most delicious, useful, fast, and simple.