100 Mushrooms: Scientific Names, Common Names, Habitat, and Toxicity

Explore 100 mushrooms with their scientific and common names, habitats, and toxicity levels. Learn how to identify and stay safe with mushrooms.

Mushrooms are a diverse group of organisms that belong to the kingdom of Fungi. They come in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and colors, and can be found in a variety of habitats all over the world.

mushrooms scientific names

Each mushroom species has a unique scientific name, which is used to identify and classify it within the scientific community. The scientific name is typically made up of two parts: the genus and the species. For example, the scientific name for the white button mushroom is Agaricus bisporus. The genus, Agaricus, is the group to which the mushroom belongs, and the species, bisporus, is the specific type of mushroom within that group.

Mushrooms also have common names, which are often used by non-scientists and vary depending on the region and culture. Common names can be less precise than scientific names, as different mushrooms may share the same common name.

For example, the scientific name Pleurotus ostreatus is commonly known as the oyster mushroom, but different species of mushrooms may also be referred to as oyster mushrooms.

Mushrooms can be found in a wide variety of habitats, including forests, grasslands, deserts, and even freshwater and marine environments. Some mushrooms grow on dead or dying trees, while others can be found growing on the ground, in leaf litter, or as symbionts with plants.

The habitat of a mushroom can vary depending on the species and the environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, and availability of nutrients. For example, some mushrooms like Agaricus campestris, commonly known as the meadow mushroom, are found in grassy fields, while others like the Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius) are found in broad-leaved and coniferous woods.

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Some species of mushrooms like the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) are cultivated for human consumption, while others like the deadly Galerina (Galerina marginata) are poisonous and should not be consumed.

The scientific names of mushrooms are a great method to differentiate and categorize different species of mushrooms, giving information about their identification and classification on them. Each species and genus name, for example Agaricus bisporus is the name given to the most commonly-used button mushroom [1].

Understanding Mushroom Scientific Names & Taxonomy

Mushroom scientific names follow the binomial nomenclature system that utilizes species-genus classification of organisms. This form of nomenclature was pioneered by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1753.

Fungal taxonomy involves classifying various fungi into hierarchical groups:

  • Kingdom: Fungi
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

To clarify, for instance, Agaricus bisporus, commonly seen in supermarkets, is its scientific name, in this instance Agaricus being its genus part and bisporus its species name.

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Why Mushroom Scientific Names Matter?

Scientific names can be vitally important, for various reasons:

  • Establishing a universal language: By adhering to a standard naming convention, scientists from different nations and languages can communicate effectively when discussing specific organisms.
  • Accuracy and precision: Common names for mushrooms can often be misleading or lead to multiple species being discussed; scientific names provide a more precise indication of which species are being discussed, thus eliminating confusion. For instance, white button mushrooms are known in French as champignons while their Spanish equivalent is champinones.
  • Documentation and Research: With new species identification reliant upon an universally acknowledged naming system, scientific names for mushrooms and fungi research is an integral component. Classes of Mushrooms: Edible, Medicinal and Poisonous

Categories of Mushrooms: Edible, Medicinal, and Poisonous

categories of mushrooms edible medicinal and poisonous

When exploring the world of mushrooms it can be useful to know that there are three categories of these fungi i.e, edible, medicinal, and poisonous:

  • Edible mushrooms: Popular edible varieties include Agaricus bisporus (white button mushrooms), Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushrooms) and Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushrooms).
  • Medicinal mushrooms: For centuries, various medicinal mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) and Trametes versicolor (turkey tail) have been recognized for their potential therapeutic use.
  • Poisonous mushrooms: Common poisonous species include Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) and Amanita phalloides (death cap), making it important to learn their scientific names to avoid accidental ingestion.

100 mushrooms scientific names, common names, habitat

100 mushrooms scientific names common names habitat

Here is a list of some mushrooms and their corresponding scientific names, common names, and habitats.

This list includes a diverse range of mushroom species, each with unique characteristics, and is intended to give an overview of the variety of mushrooms that can be found in different environments.

It’s important to note that many mushrooms have different common names in different regions and cultures, and the habitat of a mushroom can also vary depending on location.

Mushroom taxonomy is based on an organized hierarchy which encompasses kingdom classification, phylum, class family, order Genus, species and genus[2].

This list is not exhaustive, and new species of mushrooms are continually being discovered and studied.

Scientific NameCommon NameHabitat DescriptionToxicityAdditional Information
Agaricus bisporusWhite Button MushroomCultivated beds, gardens, lawns, and pastures.EdibleCultivated for culinary use.
Pleurotus ostreatusOyster MushroomDead or dying hardwood trees, such as oak and poplar.EdibleCommonly used in cooking.
Lentinula edodesShiitake MushroomDead or dying hardwood trees, such as oak and maple.EdiblePopular edible mushroom.
Agaricus campestrisMeadow MushroomGrassy fields and meadows.EdibleFound in grassy areas.
Cantharellus cibariusChanterelleConiferous and deciduous forests.EdibleCherished by foragers.
Boletus edulisPorcini or Cep MushroomConiferous and deciduous forests.EdibleHighly regarded in cuisine.
Clitocybe nebularisClouded AgaricConiferous and deciduous forests.EdibleFound in woodland areas.
Clitocybe odoraAniseed ToadstoolBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.ToxicHas an anise-like odor.
Coprinus comatusShaggy Ink CapGrassy fields, meadows, and lawns.EdibleCap dissolves into ink-like liquid.
Craterellus cornucopioidesTrumpet ChanterelleBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleResembles a trumpet shape.
Entoloma lividumLivid PinkgillHeaths, acid grassland, and woods.ToxicFeatures a pinkish gill.
Fomes fomentariusTinder FungusDead or dying hardwood trees, such as birch and beech.InedibleUsed historically for fire starting.
Galerina marginataDeadly GalerinaDead or dying hardwood trees, such as birch and beech.PoisonousContains toxic substances.
Ganoderma lucidumReishi MushroomDead or dying hardwood trees, such as maple and oak.MedicinalUsed in traditional medicine.
Gomphus floccosusScaly ChanterelleBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleKnown for its scaly cap.
Hydnum repandumHedgehog MushroomBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleSpines beneath the cap.
Lepiota cristataStinking DapperlingLawns, grassy fields, meadows, and woods.ToxicHas a foul odor.
Leccinum scabrumBrown Birch BoleteUnder birch trees.EdibleOften found in birch forests.
Leccinum aurantiacumOrange Birch BoleteUnder birch trees.EdibleTypically found in birch forests.
Macrolepiota proceraParasol MushroomGrassy fields and meadows.EdibleRecognizable by its large cap.
Mycena galericulataCommon BonnetBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleNamed for its bonnet-like cap.
Mycena puraLilac BonnetBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleRecognizable by its lilac hue.
Amanita pantherinaPanther AmanitaConiferous and deciduous forests.ToxicContains toxic substances.
Amanita rubescensBlusherConiferous and deciduous forests.EdibleCap often turns pink with age.
Armillaria ostoyaeWestern Oak ArmillariaDead or dying hardwood trees, such as oak.ParasiticParasitic on hardwood trees.
Clitopilus prunulusMillerMeadows, pastures, and roadsides.EdibleCap resembles a miller’s hat.
Clitocybe clavipesClub FootBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.ToxicKnown for its club-shaped base.
Coprinopsis atramentariaCommon InkcapLawns, grassy fields, meadows, and woods.EdibleCap turns into inky liquid.
Craterellus tubaeformisYellowfoot ChanterelleBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleNamed for its yellow foot.
Entoloma sinuatumBlueing EntolomaLawns, grassy fields, meadows, and woods.ToxicMay turn blue when bruised.
Fomitopsis pinicolaRed-Belted PolyporeDead or dying coniferous trees, such as pine and spruce.MedicinalHas medicinal properties.
Ganoderma applanatumArtist’s ConkDead or dying hardwood trees, such as maple and oak.MedicinalUsed for artistic purposes.
Gomphus kauffmaniiMatsutakeConiferous forests.EdibleHighly valued in Japanese cuisine.
Hydnum rufescensRed HedgehogBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleFeatures spines on the cap.
Hygrophorus eburneusIvory WoodwaxBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleCap has a waxy appearance.
Mycena lilacinaLilac FibrecapBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleRecognizable by its lilac color.
Lactarius blenniusDappled MilkcapBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleCap often features dappled patterns.
Lepiota naucinaBrown DapperlingLawns, grassy fields, meadows, and woods.ToxicMay have a brownish cap.
Leccinum aurantiacum var. aurantiacumWhite Birch BoleteUnder birch trees.EdibleTypically found in birch forests.
Leccinum scabrum var. rugosicepsBirch BoleteUnder birch trees.EdibleOften found in birch forests.
Macrolepiota procera var.Grassy fields and meadows.EdibleRecognizable by its large cap.
Tubaria furfuraceaTawny FunnelBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleFeatures a tawny-colored cap.
Xerocomus badiusBay BoleteBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleKnown for its brownish cap.
Xerocomus boletusPorciniBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleHighly prized in culinary use.
Xerocomus chrysenteronRed Cracking BoleteBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleCap may develop cracks.
Xerocomus subtomentosusVelvet BoleteBroad-leaved and coniferous woods.EdibleRecognizable by its velvety cap.
Xylaria hypoxylonCandlesnuff FungusDead or dying hardwood trees, such as oak and poplar.InedibleResembles burnt candle wicks.
Xylaria polymorphaDead Man’s FingersDead or dying hardwood trees, such as oak and poplar.InedibleResembles skeletal fingers.
Pleurotus cornucopiaeHorn of PlentyDead or dying hardwood trees, such as oak and poplar.EdibleNamed for its horn-like shape.
Leccinum aurantiacum var. aurantiacumOrange Birch BoleteUnder birch trees.EdibleTypically found in birch forests.
Cantharellus cibarius var. roseocanusRosy ChanterelleConiferous and deciduous forests.EdibleFeatures a rosy hue.
Morchella esculenta var. esculentaMorel MushroomDeciduous forests, particularly under elm and ash trees.EdibleHighly sought after in cuisine.

How to Use Mushroom Scientific Names?

how to use mushroom scientific names

As a beginner in mushroom identification, you may find yourself wondering how to utilize scientific names as you explore this fascinating world. Here are a few strategies for applying your newly gained knowledge:

  • Mushroom foraging: Knowing which species are edible or toxic is paramount to safe, responsible mushroom foraging. Learning scientific names for mushrooms you find will ensure accurate identification.
  • Cooking and medicinal use: Knowing the scientific names of mushrooms you add to your diet or use as medicine will ensure there are no misinterpretations of which species is being utilized.
  • Appreciating Biodiversity: Familiarizing yourself with mushroom scientific names allows you to recognize the vast array of fungi present in nature, deepening your connection to mother earth. Tips for Learning Mushroom Scientific Names

Tips for Learning Mushroom Scientific Names

Here are a few tips to help you learn and remember the scientific names of mushrooms:

  • Use field guides, books and expert resources that use scientific names.
  • Additionally, keep an eye out for new revisions or updates so as to stay well-informed of potential name changes due to taxonomic classification updates; ; keeping abreast of updates keeps you well-informed of developments in science.
  • Join local mycological clubs or societies offering educational resources and welcoming beginners.
  • Exploring mobile mushroom identification apps can assist with learning scientific names.

Safety tips

Here are some safety Tips on some of the mushrooms on the table:

  • Amanita pantherina as well as Amanita rubescens both belong to the same part of the Genus Amanita that includes a variety of poisonous mushrooms. It is crucial to know how to distinguish these two species since they may be confused. Amanita pantherina is poisonous however, Amanita rubescens can be eaten.
  • Armillaria ostoyae, also known as the “silver fungus,” is fungus that parasitizes and could kill trees. It is crucial that you are aware of the fungus particularly if you live in an region where oak trees are prevalent.
  • Fomes fomentarius as well as Ganoderma Lucidum are both medicinal mushrooms. Fomes fomentarius was traditionally used to start fires and igniting, whereas Ganoderma lucidum was used in traditional medicine for many centuries.
  • Gomphus kauffmanii is an edible mushroom that is highly sought-after in Japanese food preparation. It is famous for its savory, smoky flavor.
  • Xerocomus badius is an edible mushroom, which is typically located in forests of conifers. It is covered in a brownish cap, and an uncolored stem.
  • Xerocomus boletus is an additional common edible mushroom which is usually located in forests of coniferous trees. It is famous for its dimensions and delicious flavor.


Mushrooms have unique scientific names that are used to classify and identify them within the scientific community. They also have common names, which can vary depending on the region and culture. The habitat of mushrooms can vary greatly, depending on the species and environmental conditions.

Identification of mushrooms is fun, but it is vital to ensure that participants take the proper safety precautions while eating mushrooms[3].

The edible mushrooms are appreciated for their nutritional as well as culinary reasons. There are many recipes that can turn poisonous ones into edible ones[4].

[1] https://www.mssf.org/cookbook/names.html
[2] https://www.mushroomexpert.com/taxonomy.html
[3] https://www.mushroom-appreciation.com/mushroom-identification.html
[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edible_mushroom