Growing Mushrooms in Basement or cellar (Guide & Varieties)

There are many ideas for small businesses, but growing mushrooms at home, namely in the basement, can be an understandable, simple and affordable way for beginners to start their own business.

This idea for growing mushrooms requires certain efforts and costs, but much less than the organization of other activities. And in order for everything to be implemented correctly, you need to study the features of the technology and methods of arranging the basement for the implementation of the process.

growing mushrooms in basement or cellar

Features and benefits of growing mushrooms in the basement

Most of the features of this type of business, like growing mushrooms in the basement, are the specific advantages for which people value this type of income:

  • availability all year round – it is possible to grow the product regardless of the temperature outside, it is only important to create the right conditions for the reproduction of spores;
  • the possibility of obtaining additional profit – when concluding contracts with interested parties, you can additionally receive more than 5,000 rubles per month, and if you wish, you can multiply this indicator;
  • mushrooms are unpretentious, require a minimum of time and attention, and specific knowledge is not needed for their cultivation;
  • most of the necessary materials for growing them are inexpensive and available for purchase in any store, some fertilizers and other tools can be bought ready-made;
  • a minimum of money is required, but the arrangement of the basement must be painstaking, attentive – it will take a lot of time.

Adjusting the temperature depending on the period, maintaining optimal humidity and controlling the sanitary situation are few of the difficulties that in the early stages seem to be the most difficult aspects of growing mushrooms in the basement.

mushrooms that grow in basements or cellar

To grow mushrooms in a cellar or basement to be profitable, you need to choose the right varieties. Oyster mushrooms, champignons and porcini mushrooms are best suited for this, but you can also opt for mushrooms. But mushroom growing and growing mushrooms in the basement cannot be started without preparing the main place where they will grow.

Preparing Basement for Growing Mushrooms

Whether the premises in the basement of a residential building will be used for growing mushrooms or a private cellar is not so much important as the observance of the rules for the design and preparation of this zone. Before starting mushroom growing, it is important to carefully prepare the basement or cellar.

Correct lighting

It should be borne in mind that different types of mushrooms prefer different light conditions. So, oyster mushrooms need less light than mushrooms. When arranging a room, you can divide it into several light zones, separated from each other by racks or partitions.

Advice! In gardening stores, you can buy special lamps with dimmable settings. They allow you to create spot lighting – with more light in one corner and less light in the other.

Porcini mushrooms and honey agarics also require certain lighting and should be in other areas different from champignons or oyster mushrooms.

Ventilation of the room

For mushroom cultivation in the basement of a private or residential building to be successful, you need to create a special microclimate. And this cannot be achieved without organizing proper ventilation:

  • to achieve the desired conditions, you need to buy a forced ventilation system;
  • windows and doors should also participate in the process, but they should not be assigned the main function of ventilation;
  • installation of an exhaust hood that will improve the access of fresh air.

Winter heating to maintain the temperature in the basement can be attributed to the same system.

The ventilation system is not a complex technical device, but a set of special nets that are installed on the blow-out holes. Additionally, they protect plants from rodents, insects and mold spores.

The best basement heating system is infrared floors, which are turned on in winter and summer to maintain optimal temperatures.

Maintaining humidity and temperature

To grow mushrooms in the basement of the house, it is necessary to find ways to maintain the level of temperature and humidity.

Important! The humidity in the room should be at least 65% and not more than 95%, and the temperature should be from 15 to 25 degrees Celsius, depending on the stage of mushroom growth.

An accurate thermometer is used to maintain these values. And water systems and heaters help to maintain the parameters. The water system consists of special polyethylene pipes and plastic with sprinklers.

When growing different types of mushrooms, you need to take into account their need for different temperatures and humidity.

Arrangement of shelves and racks

To harvest a bountiful harvest, you should take care of placing as many trays of mushrooms as possible in advance. It is best to take plastic structures, as they are not afraid of moisture and mold, and are also very durable.

Additionally, containers will be required in which the mycelium will be planted and the substrate will be laid out. And for watering mycelium, special sprinklers are used.

Disinfection stage

Each basement should be equipped with shelving and ventilation and heating systems, but the most important condition for growing mushrooms is regular sanitization of the room. An increased level of humidity sooner or later causes decay processes, which leads to the reproduction of fungi and pests.

So that unsanitary conditions are not created, the basement floor is poured with concrete, and the walls are covered with bricks. The ceiling must be whitewashed for disinfection purposes. Before each new planting of mushrooms, the room is treated with an antiseptic.

You can choose one of the following types of processing:

  • fumigation with a sulfur stick;
  • spraying all zoning elements, walls and floors with 4% formalin solution;
  • updating whitewash with lime with copper sulfate.

If vegetables were previously stored in the basement or cellar, then a chlorophos solution is used for disinfection. You can also put a box with sawdust pre-soaked in disinfectant at the entrance.

How to Grow Mushrooms in Basement or cellar?

The technology for growing mushrooms in the basement is similar, but each species has its own characteristics. Their knowledge and understanding will increase the yield and avoid the adverse consequences of mistakes.

how to grow mushrooms in basement or cellar

Growing Champignon in Basement

For beginners, growing champignon mushrooms at home is the most popular way to start mushroom growing. Each stage of the technology should be carefully considered. And it begins with the preparation of the substrate.

Important! A substrate is a nutrient medium necessary for the growth of any plant. Only a high-quality substrate that matches a particular mycelium can lead a farmer to an impressive harvest.

Manufacturers’ recommendations may differ from one mycelium to another, but these differences are usually not significant. There are versatile options, the best of which is horse manure compost (provided you feed on hay, not fresh grass). Here is the prescription:

  • 850 kg of horse manure with straw (humidity 40-45%);
  • superphosphate – 13 kg;
  • urea – 3 kg;
  • gypsum – 18 kg;
  • ammonium nitrate – 8 kg.

Another option from other additional ingredients: 1000 kg of manure, 25 kg of straw, 2.5 kg of urea, 4 kg of ammonium sulfate, 2.5 kg of superphosphate, 4.250 kg of chalk.

Horse manure is a recommended ingredient that increases the mushroom yield even for a novice farmer. However, it can be replaced with cow or even bird droppings.

Home fertilizer preparation technology:

  1. The straw is soaked in a convenient container with warm water for 1 day.
  2. Stack the straw in a pile, alternating it with horse manure (6-8 layers).
  3. Each layer is spilled with water and left for 4 days.
  4. Stir the contents and add superphosphate, urea.
  5. Leave the mixture for another 3-4 days, then mix and, gradually adding the remaining fertilizers, shovel.
  6. Gypsum is added last.

The whole process of compost preparation takes from 24 to 28 days. A ready-made mixture is considered to have no ammonia smell. The manure takes on a light brown color. During the fermentation period, the temperature of the manure reaches 70 degrees, while for planting mushrooms it should be a maximum of 25 degrees Celsius.

Important! The product is prepared in a ventilated room, which is used for household purposes, or under a canopy on the street. The composition should not be exposed to water and sunlight.

If laying manure on the ground is required, then cellophane is first laid so that pests do not get into the mixture. The finished product is laid out in boxes in which mushroom cultivation is planned.

Planting mushroom mycelium

Like other mushrooms, champignons grow from mycelium – this substance can only be grown in an industrial laboratory, so it must be bought in a special store. One of the conditions for growing mycelium is absolute sterility, which cannot be achieved at home.

For 1 sq. m of substrate (prepared soil with compost) take 500 g of compost mycelium and 400 g of cereal spores of champignons. The seeds are placed in compost, making 4-5 cm depressions at a distance of 20 cm from each other. Compost mycelium is placed in these holes. If spores are purchased instead of compost mycelium, they are scattered over the surface.

The incubation period – before the appearance of fruiting bodies – requires maintaining a humidity of 70-95%. To prevent drying out, cover the ground with a cloth and spray with clean water. The temperature during this period should be kept within 20-27 degrees.

Within 10-12 days, the active distribution of mushroom filaments will begin. At this moment, they are covered with 3-4 cm of earth and wait up to 5 days. The land is chosen as follows: 1 part of limestone, 5 parts of peat and 4 parts of soil. Spraying with water from a spray bottle is continued.

Forcing fruiting bodies

The next stage, which occurs after the incubation period, is forcing:

  • after the appearance of the filaments of mushrooms, the temperature in the room is reduced to 12-17 degrees, or the boxes are placed in a special room for forcing, where the temperature is lower;
  • at this moment, the active growth of myceliums begins, and after 3-4 months it will be possible to harvest the first crop, however, mushrooms should not be allowed to overripe;
  • fruits are harvested when the lower part of the cap remains closed – it is covered with a white film, and the brown plates are not visible;
  • mushrooms are twisted out of place without leaving a cut – this is necessary to prevent infections;
  • after collecting the place from which the champignon was taken out, sprinkle with a small amount of soil.

After the first harvest, the mushrooms will begin to grow again, and re-fruits can be harvested in 2 weeks. Under good conditions, up to 6-8 harvests are obtained from one incubation procedure. At the same time, the first 3 waves are the most fruitful, then the number of mushrooms is sharply reduced.

Growing Oyster mushrooms in Basement

Unlike champignons, growing oyster mushrooms in the basement require different conditions. A wooden bar is best suited for them:

  • prepare large wooden stumps, cleaning them from rotten parts;
  • treat the tree with a strong solution of potassium permanganate;
  • infect stumps with mycelium – oyster mushrooms develop best on non-coniferous species.

To infect the stumps, they take sawdust or straw, and the substrate is mixed with mycelium and placed in a felt bag. They hang it in the cellar at a temperature of 22 to 25 degrees Celsius. As soon as the first harvest rises, the temperature is lowered to 12 degrees.

Oyster mushrooms are the most unpretentious type of mushrooms, but they do not tolerate bright lighting. The light should be weak, diffused. The first fruits can be harvested as early as 2 weeks after the infestation of the bar. The total fruiting period is up to 2 months.

Growing White mushroom in Basement

Growing porcini mushrooms in the basement will require more attention, skills, and patience. This is an extremely whimsical type of product. The main problem is the need for natural forest soil.

Advice! To prepare such a substrate, you need field grass, dry branches and moss.

The substrate is mixed and evenly placed on the racks. It is important that all elements of the mixture are perfectly dry, otherwise the mushrooms will not grow.

After preparing the soil, the mycelium is planted and irrigated with a spray bottle, then covered with garden paper and the room temperature is reached at 18 degrees Celsius. After a month, the porcini mushroom grown in the basement can be harvested.

The mushroom grower must remember that lowering the temperature to 15-16 degrees for more than 1-2 hours can be fatal for the porcini mushroom!

Growing honey agaric in Basement

Honey mushrooms are a relatively unpretentious variety, but they require impeccable room ventilation. However, they can be grown both in the basement and in the cellar, and an unused garage can be an ideal place.

For the substrate, be sure to take straw or dry branches, pre-steamed in hot water for 11-12 hours. Then the prepared mixture is mixed with mycelium and placed in plastic bags.

Tied soft containers are laid out on racks and the temperature is kept from 14 to 16 degrees Celsius in the room for 2 months. This is exactly how much mushrooms need to start fruiting.

Growing mushrooms in the basement of a private or apartment building is a very interesting activity, the process of which reveals many secrets to a novice mushroom grower. It is best to try your skills with simple types of mushrooms – champignons, oyster mushrooms.

Over time, everyone can switch to more valuable varieties – porcini mushrooms. Also, experts advise growing one type of mushroom first, only then, if you have experience, you can divide the room into several zones and grow different varieties there.