Home mushroom growing is a simple and exciting process. You do not need special expensive equipment and a lot of time, the main thing is to follow the technology. One of the most common ways to grow mushrooms is to grow oyster mushrooms in bags at home. The process can be quickly mastered even by a beginner. From our article, you will learn how to grow oyster mushrooms in bags and what you need for this.
Are oyster mushrooms easy to grow?
Oyster mushrooms are healthy and tasty mushrooms. They can grow both naturally and at home. The peculiarity of mushrooms is in their structure. A solid hat slightly tapering towards the edge smoothly passes into the stem, which is most often located on the edge of the mushroom. Oyster mushrooms come in different colors: gray, lemon yellow and ash purple. It all depends on the type of mushroom. A young good mushroom has an elastic juicy pulp. Over time, it becomes dry and hard.
Oyster mushrooms contain fiber, which normalizes the microflora, helps to eliminate toxic substances. Also, many people eat this type of mushroom to increase immunity and get rid of extra pounds.
Oyster mushrooms can be grown in different ways. Someone uses an extensive path when mushrooms grow in open ground. Mushroom pickers are set in the garden in the shade. This option is seasonal.
There is also an intensive way of growing oyster mushrooms. For this, a specially equipped room is used. So, mushroom cultivation can be practiced all year round.
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how to grow oyster mushrooms in bags?
This method is one of the most common and convenient. You don’t need special equipment or big money. All that is needed is a special room, bags, substrate, and mycelium.
choosing room to grow oyster mushroom
Choosing a place to grow mushrooms is one of the key points. A barn, garage or cellar is suitable as a room.
Ideally, you will need two rooms. In one, incubation will take place, and in the second, mushrooms will be grown directly.
Remember, before starting work, the room must be disinfected. Whitewash the walls with copper sulphate solution. Be sure to cover the ventilation holes with a mesh so that midges cannot enter the room.
The key to success is favorable conditions inside. And at each stage they are different. The temperature level during incubation is 25 degrees, the humidity indicator is 70%. After incubation, observe the temperature regime up to 18 degrees and humidity from 80% to 95%.
Oyster Mushroom growing Equipments
Although growing oyster mushrooms at home do not require the purchase of specialized expensive equipment, you may still need some devices:
- Heater. If the room is too cold, then put a heater and insulate the walls and floors.
- Thermometer. Helps to monitor the temperature in the room.
- Daylight lamps. Oyster mushrooms do not like direct sunlight. They grow especially well in diffused electric light.
- Spray. It will help to maintain the required level of humidity. If the budget allows, you can purchase a special water sprinkler or humidifier.
- A simple household fan will help to establish the processes of supply and exhaust ventilation.
oyster mushroom grow bags
To grow oyster mushrooms, you will need translucent plastic bags. The wall thickness is about 70 µm.
If you plan to hang bags, check their strength. The size of the bags is selected individually, depending on the possibilities of the room. As a rule, for home cultivation, bags of 40×60 cm are purchased with a minimum capacity of 5 kg.
oyster mushrooms Mycelium
It is extremely important to buy high-quality mycelium. You can find it in specialized stores or at oyster mushroom growing enterprises. On an industrial scale, mycelium are used for a year, and then they are sold. However, in the future, it can bear fruit for a long time at home.
When choosing a mycelium, pay attention to its color. A good quality product is yellow or orange in color. There should be no blemishes or stains.
If you bought mycelium and did not immediately start forming mycelium, place it in the refrigerator. There it can be stored no longer than 9 days.
Knead the mycelium inside the bag in the room where you will be breeding the mushrooms.
substrate for oyster mushrooms bags
The substrate can be bought at the store or prepared independently. The second way is much more economical. As a substrate, you can use wheat or barley straw, buckwheat husks or corn stalks.
If you want to use sawdust, then choose only hardwoods. Mycelium will be difficult to grow in coniferous wood.
Before placing the substrate in a container, it must be processed. To do this, dip it in water and boil it, then let it cool and squeeze out the mixture. It is recommended to enrich the home mixture with urea and superphosphate, taking no more than 0.5% of each fertilizer.
When you purchase a finished product, carefully read the instructions, as each type of mushroom requires a different substrate composition.
oyster mushroom blocks
Oyster mushrooms in bags are hung in blocks. These are some kind of peculiar beds. You need to fill the bags in a certain order. Alternate the substrate and mycelium in layers until you fill the bag completely. The top layer should be the substrate.
Work at the rate of 1 kg. mixtures of 60 g of mycelium. Place the last substance closer to the edges of the bag. Be sure to compact each layer.
Release the air before tying the bag. Then close the bag tightly and make small cuts over the entire area.
Please note that the number of layers affects the rate of germination of the mycelium. The more mycelium, the faster it matures.
How to care for oyster mushrooms in bags?
Cultivation takes place in two stages. First, the mycelium is in the incubation period, after the white strings of future mushrooms appear, they are moved to another room, where the oyster mushrooms grow directly until they are fully ripe.
Lighting for growing oyster in bags
Incubation takes place in a dark room. In the second phase, the mushrooms need light. Set daily lighting for 8-10 hours.
Check for diseases. If the mushrooms have thin long legs, then they do not have enough light, and if the mushrooms are too small and weak, on the contrary, there is too much light.
The period of incubation depends on the type of fungus. As a rule, it is 10-14 days.
oyster mushroom growing temperature and humidity
The temperature level during incubation is 25 degrees, the humidity indicator is 70%. After incubation, observe the temperature regime up to 18 degrees and humidity from 80% to 95%.
Airing or Ventilating
Ventilating the room during incubation is not worth it. Use a fan to cool the material. Please note that the bags should not hang too close.
When the mushrooms begin to germinate, take care of ventilation, but do not make drafts.
When oyster mushrooms are grown in bags, they do not need to be watered with a special growth substrate. The main thing is to maintain an optimal level of humidity. For these purposes, mycelium, walls and floor are irrigated twice a day.
If there is a heater in the room, then a bowl of water should always be next to it.
how to harvest oyster mushrooms from bag?
The fact that the crop is ripe is evidenced by the appearance of the mushrooms. They become large – the width of the cap is about 13 cm, and the height of the mushroom is 10 cm. It is important to prevent overgrowth of the fungus. Overripe, it becomes tasteless and tough.
Oyster mushrooms grow in clusters. The entire splice should be cut off. Leftover mushrooms will interfere with the growth of others. To do this, use a sharp knife with a thin blade.
Note that the first wave of the harvest is the most fruitful. In the future, mushrooms grow faster, but in smaller numbers.
How to store ripe oyster mushrooms?
When the crop is harvested, it is important to store it properly. Use special plastic containers. In one – no more than 1 kg. mushrooms.
The shelf life is determined by temperature. So, at room temperature, oyster mushrooms will remain fresh only for a day. Mushrooms can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 4 days. At a temperature of -2 degrees, the shelf life will be 20 days, and freezing will ensure the freshness of the product for 6 months.
Do not moisten mushrooms before storage. Otherwise, they absorb water and lose their shape.
oyster mushroom growing problems
Inexperienced farmers often find it difficult to grow oyster mushrooms. Even if everything was clear in theory, in fact a beginner may encounter various problems. Sometimes plantations are affected by mold, fungus or fruit midge. The reason may lie in one infected block or non-compliance with the humidity regime.
If the bag is contaminated, it should be discarded and the room disinfected to prevent the situation from happening again. Remove all unnecessary raw materials with a household vacuum cleaner. Then proceed to the treatment of the room with formaldehyde. To do this, put open jars of solution indoors for several days. Then ventilate it well. Then proceed to formalin processing.
If midges appeared in the mycelium, then the bags are also removed, and the room is treated with a sulfuric smoke bomb.
It happens when the mycelium does not bear fruit, but there are no external factors indicating a problem. Then, most likely, the reason lies in poor-quality planting material.
how to make oyster mushroom mycelium youself?
Independent production of mycelium is a laborious process that requires experience. The easiest way is to grow mycelium on cereals. Crush the grains and boil for 15 minutes. Pre-treat all containers with which you work with alcohol.
Please note that all work with mushrooms must be carried out in a mask and gloves.
Conventionally, the production process of mycelium can be divided into several stages:
- Production of uterine mycelium. It is made in a test tube with crushed grains and mushroom pieces. Previously, parts of oyster mushrooms are dipped in hydrogen peroxide, then planted in a nutrient medium and tightly closed. Two weeks later, a white edge appears, which is the uterine mycelium.
- Creation of an intermediate mycelium. Chalk and gypsum are added to the grains. The mixture is placed in jars along with the mother substance. The containers are tightly closed with a lid and left for two weeks. During this period, a fresh edge appears.
- Seed preparation. First, the substrate is sterilized and placed in clean containers. Intermediate mycelium is also added here. Next, you need to wait for its complete fouling with a white edge. Process completed.
Please note that the mycelium germinates at all stages, but only following the technology will give good results.
- Growing oyster mushrooms in bags at home is one of the most common ways to grow mushrooms of this species. It does not require much time and effort. The main thing is to follow the exact instructions.
- The basic rule is to work with clean hands in a disinfected room and maintain optimal temperature and humidity.
- Use two rooms for growing oyster mushrooms. In one, the mushrooms go through an incubation period, and in the second, the mushrooms grow.
- If the mycelium is affected by mold, midges or fungus, discard the bags and thoroughly disinfect the room.
- Mycelium for oyster mushrooms can be bought, or you can make it yourself. In the second case, if everything is done correctly, you will have a cheap quality mixture.