Agaricus bisporus Mushroom: Habitat, Species, Cultivation

Button mushroom or portobello or Champignon bispora belongs to the agaric mushroom family, lamellar type, agaricomycete class. It has latin name Agaricus bisporus. It grows in the wild and is cultivated in industry. Many farmers and summer residents grow mushrooms at home.

Agaricus bisporus Habitat and origin

Initially, Agaricus bisporus was taken for ordinary. Until 1906, when scientists were able to detect differences in mushrooms. Since then, he has received his real name. Until 1930, it was considered the brainchild of natural selection, but this year wild specimens were also discovered.

agaricus bisporus mushroom

Cultivated all over the world and occupies one of the leading places. Almost 80% of all mushroom species on the market are agaric representatives.

What is the common name for Agaricus bisporus?

The common name used for Agaricus bisporus is white and brown button mushroom for marketing purposes it is also named portobello.

Agaricus bisporus (portobello) Description

The royal champignon is divided into 3 subspecies – the first (wild) brown shade, the second and third (selected fruits) cream, and white. They are similar in features. Distinctive features are only in color.


At the very beginning of the growing season, the color of the cap is much lighter, but upon reaching maturity, the mushroom acquires the most saturated shade, depending on the subspecies.


  • diameter from 5 to 16 cm;
  • shape – at the beginning of growth spherical, in the middle – hemispherical, at the end – prostrate and convex;
  • the edge is initially tucked inward, then lowered down;
  • bedspread – there are remnants;
  • the center of the cap is often slightly darker than the overall color;
  • the surface of selected species is smooth and shiny, while that of wild ones is silky, fibrous, covered with radial scales and cracks.

There are specimens with a cap diameter of 25–30 cm.

The pulp of a two-spored fungus is characterized by increased density and fleshiness. It has a pleasant mushroom aroma and slightly sour taste. The color is white, but when cut, it acquires a soft pink hue.

Spore layer and powder

The hymenophore is distinguished by a lamellar layer that changes color as it grows. Initially, it is pinkish-gray, after which it becomes dark brown, sometimes brown with a purple tint.

Other Features:

  • spore powder – dark brown;
  • the arrangement of the plates is frequent, free and hanging down;
  • the edge of the plates is light.


Champignon is not considered too large. The length of the leg is from 3 to 8 cm, the thickness is from 1 to 4 cm. Other indicators:

  • the shape is cylindrical, but may be club-shaped;
  • the ring is in the upper part, has a whitish tint and a felt structure;
  • rhizomorphs (white strands) are located at the base;
  • the surface above the rings is smooth, light pink or grayish, fibrous;
  • the surface under the rings is silky fibrous, white.

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Agaricus bisporus Place of growth and fruiting period

You can harvest Agaricus bisporus from early April to late September. The mushroom grows almost everywhere, except for the Northern regions, as it does not tolerate cold.

Prefers fertile soil. Most often localized in the garden and in the garden, near livestock farms, pastures. Requires the presence of grass or foliage.

Agaricus bisporus Beneficial features

The mushroom is considered a delicacy, used in dietetics. It consists of the following elements:

  • vitamin E;
  • vitamin PP;
  • group B;
  • iron, potassium, phosphorus, zinc;
  • campesterol (a natural antibiotic);
  • amino acids and more.

The calorie content of royal champignon per 100 g of the product is only 25–27 kcal. It has about 3% crude fat and 45% protein.

Beneficial features:

  • eliminates migraine, headache;
  • relieves fatigue;
  • improves skin structure;
  • promotes weight loss;
  • destroys viruses and bacteria:
  • suppresses cancer cells;
  • disinfects;
  • lowers blood sugar and cholesterol levels;
  • has an immunostimulating effect;
  • used for paratyphoid and typhoid;
  • improves the digestibility of food and nutrients;
  • speeds up metabolism.

Pharmaceutics from champignon juice receives an extract for the preparation of drugs against hypertension, dyspepsia and allergies.

Agaricus bisporus Possible harm and contraindications

Toxicity is present in absolutely all mushrooms, so they are contraindicated in large quantities. Mushrooms collected on roadsides, in places where there are industrial production plants, landfills and other harmful elements can cause harm.


  • individual intolerance to mushroom products;
  • age up to 5 years;
  • chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in the acute stage.

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Agaricus bisporus (portobello) Cooking

Two-spored champignon is used for frying, boiling, stewing, pickling, canning, but it is allowed to eat it even raw (in very limited quantities). It belongs to the 2nd food category, has a pleasant taste and aroma.

Before using in culinary dishes, mushrooms must be properly prepared:

  1. Remove dirt with a brush or cloth.
  2. Cut off 2-3 mm legs. If there are damage or rotted places, remove them with a knife.
  3. Rinse under running water.
  4. Dry on a paper or rag towel.

If you managed to collect only very old champignons, be sure to remove the film from the stem and cap.

Rules for cooking and frying, which should be strictly adhered to:

  • cook for about 7-10 minutes, then let the water drain, otherwise it will greatly nourish the structure of the fungus;
  • you need to fry no more than 15 minutes raw product and 5 minutes if already cooked.

how to grow (Agaricus bisporus) portobello mushroom at home and in garden?

At large industrial enterprises, straw combined with horse manure is most often used for cultivation. As a result, from 1 sq. m harvest about 15 kg of crop. The substrate changes after 3 crops. At home, the technology is a little different.

Conditions for growing

To grow Agaricus bisporus, special conditions must be observed. They are the following:

  • air temperature in the room at the time of germination is about + 15°C, then – + 20°C;
  • air humidity from 85 to 90%;
  • lighting – bright lights are excluded.

If you plan to grow mushrooms as a business, you need to create greenhouse conditions for them. For this, a built-in and darkened greenhouse or basement is used.

Planting material can be bought in specialized stores, but for a novice mushroom farmer it is expensive. The best option is to collect disputes on your own.

how to grow Agaricus bisporus mushrooms:

  1. Prepare the nutrient medium. There are 2 main ways:
    • mix 2 liters of water with 3 tbsp. l. oatmeal and 7 tbsp. l. agar-agar, bring to a boil, strain the cooled liquid;
    • combine 2 liters of water with 1 kg of carrot extract and 40 g of agar-agar, boil for 30 minutes.
  2. Collect the mushrooms, and put the resulting mixture in a glass jar.
  3. Using tweezers, pinch off a small piece of champignon and dip it for a second in hydrogen peroxide to kill pathogens.
  4. Put in a container with the substrate and close the lid.
  5. Leave for 12 days at a temperature of + 25°C.
  6. After the formation of whitish fibers, transplant to a permanent place.

Agaricus bisporus mushroom Planting process and care

The first harvest after mycelium transplantation is obtained after 60–70 days. For growing, make a nutrient substrate:

  1. Soak the straw for 3 days.
  2. Take the same amount of manure (you can use cow manure).
  3. Lay in a pile in layers – straw / manure. Each layer is about 34 cm. There should be 4 of each in total.
  4. Add a little fertilizer according to the instructions for a specific preparation. You can use Superphosphate.
  5. Moisturize daily for 7 days.
  6. Break the substrate with a pitchfork.
  7. So repeat 4 times with an interval of 4 days.
  8. At the last mixing, add 20% of the total mass of chalk or gypsum.

The readiness of the soil is checked simply:

  • no ammonia smell should be emitted;
  • the mass does not stick to hands;
  • the mixture is loose and wet;
  • straw breaks easily.

how to plant Agaricus bisporus:

  1. In prepared containers (wooden boxes, bags, etc.), place the substrate to a depth of 50 cm.
  2. Seal and pour generously with warm water.
  3. After 3 days, place the mycelium evenly over the surface of the created beds. Between each piece of mycelium should be 16-20 cm.
  4. Be sure to cover 3-4 cm on top with the same soil.

Further care consists in watering (it is carried out as the substrate dries) and observing the growing conditions.

Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Species

There are a number of mushrooms that are similar to champignons, but there are still minor differences. Among those there are not only edible but also poisonous:

  1. Esset. Edible and tasty. It grows most often in coniferous forests. The fruiting body is whitish, the stem is thinner, and the annulus is torn.
  2. Crooked. It is used for food, sometimes brown, also grows in spruce forests. Distinctive feature – anise aroma and taste.
  3. Bernard. The fruit body is identical to the two-spore one, but when cut, the flesh is mostly pinkish. The ring is unstable.
  4. Möller. Poisonous champignon, on the cap of which there is a smoky shade. The stalk is white to brown, growing in the same place as the two-spored one.
  5. Yellow-skinned . Another poisonous representative of champignons. It is very similar to the two-spored, but if you press on the pulp, a bright yellow color will instantly appear.

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How to store Agaricus bisporus?

Agaricus bisporus is stored in different ways. The most common options:

  1. Frozen. To do this, the mushrooms are pre-boiled or fried, but it is permissible to put them in the freezer and raw.
  2. Pickling and marinating. The shelf life is not too long, but the mushrooms are delicious. There are many recipes for this.
  3. Canning. A great option if mushrooms are then used to make salads and snacks.
  4. Drying . Keeps for almost a year. Such mushrooms can be fried, thrown into soup, sauces, etc.

Two-spored champignon is distinguished by excellent taste and quality indicators, good yield, and long fruiting period. It is these factors that make the mushroom popular with farmers in mass cultivation for sale and among “professional” mushroom pickers.


In conclusion, the agaricus bisporus mushroom is a great addition to any diet. It is low in calories and high in nutrients, making it a perfect food for those looking to lose weight or improve their health. The mushroom can be eaten cooked or raw, so there are plenty of ways to enjoy it. Be sure to add this healthy fungus to your next grocery list!